||The seven states make up a priority Global 200 ecosystem.
51 forest types are found in the region, broadly classified into six major types — tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical semi evergreen forests, tropical wet evergreen forests, subtropical forests, temperate forests and alpine forests.
Out of the nine important vegetation types of India, six are found in the North Eastern region.
These forests harbour 8,000 out of 15,000 species of flowering plants. In floral species richness, the highest diversity is reported from the states of Arunachal Pradesh (5000 species) and Sikkim (4500 species) amongst the North Eastern States.
According to the Indian Red Data Book, published by the Botanical Survey of India, 10 percent of the flowering plants in the country are endangered. Of the 1500 endangered floral species, 800 are reported from North East India.
Most of the North Eastern states have more than 60% of their area under forest cover, a minimum suggested coverage for the hill states in the country in order to protect from erosion.
North East India is a part of Indo-Burma ‘hotspot’. The hotspot is the world’s second largest, next only to the Mediterranean basin, with an area 2,206,000 square kilometres (852,000 sq mi) among the 25 identified
||Spread over an area of 1,985 square kilometres (766 sq mi) in Arunachal Pradesh, Namdapha National Park is the largest national park of the northeast region. Situated 150 kilometres (93 mi) from Miao (district headquarters on the Indo-Burma border), Namdapha National Park is one of the largest wildlife protected areas in India. The altitude rises from 200 to 4,500 metres (660 to 14,760 ft) in the snow-capped mountains. The ecosystem abounds in more than 150 species of timber. Important rare fauna species include Pinus merkusii, Abies delavayi, blue vanda and Mishimi teeta. The Namdapha tiger reserve in Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, in an area of 1,850 square kilometres (710 sq mi) rugged terrain, is home to feline species such as tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard and lesser cats. Primates such as Assamese macaque, pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque, hoolock gibbon, besides other mammals (elephant, Asian black bear, Indian bison, deer), birds (white-winged wood duck, great Indian hornbill, jungle fowl, pheasant) and reptiles add to the rich fauna diversity.
Manas National Park
Wildlife sanctuary and a World Heritage Site (declared by UNESCO), in the Barpeta district of Assam and partly along Bhutan foothills, the Manas National Park is shelter to rare species of as many as 55 mammals, 50 reptiles, 380 birds and three amphibians. Besides tiger, elephant, rhinoceros and wild water buffalo, leopard,pigmy hog, red panda, swamp deer, capped langur, sambar, hispid hare, golden langur, fowl, bulbul, brahminy duck, Indian grey hornbill and roofed turtle are protected in the Manas National Park. It is also an elephant reserve and biosphere reserve.
Kaziranga National Park
Spread over an area of approximately 430 square kilometres (170 sq mi), 217 kilometres (135 mi) from Guwahati, with annual rainfall of 2300 mm, Kaziranga National Park is on the bank of Brahmaputra river with its swamps and tall thickets of elephant-grass. It is home to the world’s largest population of great Indian one-horned rhinoceros, largest of the three Asian rhinos.The grasslands of semi-evergreen forest are inhabited by leopard, elephant, barasingha or swamp deer, barking deer, wild boar, hog deer, bison, otter, hoolock gibbon, golden langur, wild water buffalo, capped langur, pygmy hog, bear, grey-headed fish eagle, Pallas’s fish eagle, crested serpent eagle, swamp partridge, red jungle fowl, Bengal florican, whistling teal, pelican, red-breasted parakeet, black-necked stork, adjutant stork, open-bill stork, egret, heron, white-winged wood duck, rock python, monitor lizard, turtle and other commonly found species.
Orang National Park
Also known as ‘Mini Kaziranga’, the Orang National Park is on the northern bank of the river Brahmaputra, in the state of Assam, covering 78.81 square kilometres (30.43 sq mi). Established as a sanctuary in 1985 and declared a national park in 1999, it is 32 kilometres (20 mi) from Tezpur and 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Guwahati. The terrain slopes gently from north to south covered with natural forest vegetation like Bombax ceiba, Dalbergia sissoo,Sterculia villosa, Trewia nudiflora, Ziziphus jujuba, Litsaea polyantha and other non-aquatic grassland species. One-horned rhinoceros, royal Bengal tiger,Asiatic elephant, hog deer, wild boar, civet, leopard, hare, porcupines and commonly found birds and reptiles in the region. Orang National Park is an important habitat of the Bengal florican.
Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
Situated in the Morigaon district of Assam, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Guwahati, Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary covers 38.8 square kilometres (15.0 sq mi) and is famous for great Indian one-horned rhinoceros. The sanctuary also protects Asian buffalo, leopard, wild bear, civet, reptiles and some 2000 migratory birds.
Sepahijola Wildlife Sanctuary
Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in Tripura, India. It covers an area of about 18.53 square kilometres (7.15 sq mi) and is located about 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the city centre. It is a woodland with an artificial lake and natural botanical and zoological gardens. The sanctuary boasts of abounding congregation of wildlife, especially birds and primates, the terrain is absolutely green throughout the year and so is the beautiful weather except for the two humid summer months of March and April. It gives shelter to about 150 species of birds and the unique bespectacled monkey.
Keibul Lamjao National Park
Keibul Lamjao National Park is about 53 kilometres (33 mi) from Imphal in Manipur. Temperatures range from a maximum of 34.4 °C (93.9 °F) to a minimum of 1.7 °C (35.1 °F). Established as a wildlife sanctuary in 1966, it became a national park in 1977. The area of the park, about 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi), mostly comprises wetlands overgrown with 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) deep floating vegetation called Phumdi. Loktak lake, the largest freshwater lake in India, falls primarily within the park. Brow-antlered deer (sangai in Meitei dialect) is particularly popular among the species of deer that abounds here. Extremely rare lesser cats like the marbled cat and Temminck’s golden cat, Himalayan black bear, Malayan bear, black eagle, shaheen falcon, great white pelican, bamboo-partridge and green peafowl, hooded crane, brown hornbill, wreathed hornbill, great pied hornbill (great Indian hornbill) constitute the diverse fauna in the park.